The principle and benefits of multiple Type Acceptance Certificates
According to international standards, a Certificate of Airworthiness must refer to an airworthiness standard for the aircraft type. This standard is reflected in a Type Certificate that is issued for an aircraft type. The Type Certificate determines a number of items that are relevant for airworthiness, such as:
- the build standard of the aircraft
- the basis for the maintenance programme
- Airworthiness Directives
- the Airplane Flight Manual/Pilot Operating Handbook
- the MMEL
Normally, a state issues only one Type Certificate per aircraft type, which then forms the mandatory basis for the Certificates of Airworthiness of each aircraft of that type.
2-REG however offers a choice of Type Certificates (TC), from three different, major, jurisdictions: Europe (EASA), USA (FAA) and Canada (TCCA). These are reflected in the form of Type Acceptance Certificates (TAC) issued by 2-REG, which validate for a given type (including models and series), the Type Certificate issued by any of these three jurisdictions. Validation, in this respect, means that 2-REG will accept on sight the Type Certificate of the ‘host’ jurisdiction, including everything that comes with it, such as the AFM, ADs, Instructions for Continuing Airworthiness (ICA), the MMEL, etc. As an example, for the Pilatus PC-12, 2-REG has issued three separate TACs based on the TCs issued by EASA, FAA and Canada respectively. The 2-REG customer can choose between these three when first applying for a Certificate of Airworthiness.
This choice of options offers several benefits to users of 2-REG:
- No need to have the aircraft modified because of differences in build standard. In many cases, the airworthiness standards differ between the various jurisdictions which means that the build standard (also known as approved type design) is slightly different, causing modifications to an aircraft when it switches from one jurisdiction to another. As an example, an aircraft that has a CoA issued by the USA but is exported into an EASA state may need to be modified to meet the type design standard of EASA. The 2-REG user, however, can avoid such modifications by choosing for the US based 2-REG Type Acceptance Certificate.
- Select a maintenance programme basis that is most favourable to the needs of the 2-REG user. There are, for the same aircraft type, differences in maintenance programmes that may be significant in terms of items to be inspected, inspection intervals, or other.
- Avoid certification of modifications. Some modifications to a type design, such as STC’s, are only approved by one of the three major jurisdictions. In such a case, and in order to avoid costly certification, the choice for the Type Certificate can be led by the availability of an STC. As an example, an engine conversion for a given type of aircraft may only have been approved by one of the three jurisdictions. Choosing one of the other jurisdictions would mean that the engine conversion first needs to be offered for certification by that other jurisdiction, which may be costly and time consuming.
- Exporting the aircraft. When the aircraft has been maintained according to the ICA that apply for the chosen Type Certification jurisdiction, and modifications have been embodied that have been approved by that jurisdiction, then export to that jurisdiction, or a state that has adopted the airworthiness standards of that jurisdiction, will be fairly simple.
The choice of TC jurisdiction can only be made once, at the time of initial application for a CoA. This means that the 2-REG user, for the time that the aircraft is registered on 2-REG, must comply with such instructions and documents as the maintenance programme, the AFM/POH, the ADs and the MMEL that apply to the host Type Certification jurisdiction.
Note that the choice of TC jurisdiction has no effect on:
- The choice of maintenance organisation, provided it has available Instructions for Continuing Airworthiness as relevant to the host jurisdiction of Type Certification. Any maintenance organisation that maintains and releases to service a 2-REG aircraft must have a validation by 2-REG. This validation may be based on a maintenance organisation approval (MOA) issued by EASA, an EASA member state or Canada, or a repair station certificated by the FAA. One of the conditions is that the organisation must have available and use the instructions for continuing airworthiness from the Type Certificate holder, as relevant to the jurisdiction of Type Certification.
- Pilot licence. Flying an aircraft is independent of the choice of Type Certification. Therefore, and as an example, a 2-REG issued validation of an EASA pilot licence may be used to fly an aircraft that is based on an FAA Type Certificate.